Ways to Manage Stormwater
Stormwater can cause a lot of damage to people and the environment if not managed well. There are many types of stormwater management solutions. Water can be managed through runoff from impervious surfaces, groundwater replenishment, rainwater harvesting, debris management, and surface runoff retention. This method aids in making the environment safe in the event of heavy rainfall.
Impervious surface runoff
Impervious surfaces include but are not limited to buildings, roads, parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways. There are essentially two ways of managing these areas. The first one is treating the water or installing a device to collect the water. The "Treatment" method physically treats the water before discharging it into storm drains or rivers. The "Collector" method is to install a device to collect the water and discharge it into storm drains or rivers. The latter method is known as infiltration or percolation and is more common than the other method.
Groundwater replenishment uses groundwater (water under the ground) to supplement rainfall to conserve surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater replenishment is one of the most productive ways to reduce stormwater runoff. It reduces the amount of water that needs to be treated and improves stormwater quality. Deep percolation involves lowering the groundwater table to allow more rainfall water to reach waterways.
This groundcover method is commonly used by urban areas and involves planting trees, shrubs, and grasses along streets to absorb rainwater runoff. The vegetative cover provides effective stormwater management in urban landscapes. Vegetation absorbs and filters rainwater and recharges groundwater beneath the vegetative cover. The method takes a long time to implement because the vegetation has to grow after being planted before it can facilitate stormwater management.
Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is an umbrella term used to describe various rainwater harvesting technologies that capture rainwater for reuse. It can be applied in landscaping, agriculture, home gardens, and other applications. Rainwater can irrigate crops, household needs such as drinking water production, etc. Rainwater harvesting is often used for non-potable applications such as irrigation in gardens, lawns, and flushing toilets.
Surface runoff retention
Surface runoff retention, also known as stormwater retention or water retention, captures and retains stormwater runoff on-site for reuse within the same watershed. Capturing stormwater runoff using new or existing ponds and impoundments, storing it in surface reservoirs, or infiltrating it into aquifers, can be a viable alternative to discharging stormwater directly to surface waters.
With natural grasslands and trees being washed away and replaced by asphalt and concrete, stormwater management devices are needed to help protect those resources. The swales and wetlands will provide effective management in areas where stormwater management devices are not required. The stormwater collects on this land like a battery. It can flow into the swales or wetlands easily without disturbing the soil when it rains. Regardless of the method used in stormwater management, what matters most is the safety of people and the environment.